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How Energy works in Quantum Mechanics

Introduction

Quantum mechanics is a fascinating area of physics that describes the behavior of matter and energy at very small scales. One key concept in quantum mechanics is the use of ladder operators, which allow us to understand how energy works in quantum systems. These operators are used to calculate the energy levels of electrons in atoms, and to describe the behavior of particles in a variety of other contexts. In this blog post, we'll take a closer look at ladder operators and explore how they help us understand the fundamental nature of energy in quantum mechanics.


Classical mechanics and harmonic oscillator

Before getting to Quantum mechanics first we will take look at how Energy works in classical physics. In order to understand that lets take look at spring-block system. Imagine there is spring mass system oscillating on it’s mean position. So as we know energy stored inside it will be proportional to Square of it’s displacement from it’s mean position. It’s formula is given by E = 1/2kx^2. So if we stretch spring in right hand direction, block will experience spring force in left hand direction and when we plot Displacement Vs potential graph we will get a parabola shape.

Now inorder to visualize this as energy well take some sphere and put it on this parabola. Variation of energy of sphere can be visualized as shown in below animation


This is known as a classical harmonic oscillator. It is any system that undergoes simple harmonic motion, where the acceleration of our system is proportional to its displacement.


Now this Quadratic potential can be translated to Quantum system also and it is known as Quantum harmonic oscillator. We may not find direct application of Quantum harmonic oscillator in real world but it help us in solving problem quickly and more conveniently.


Quantum harmonic oscillators



Quantum harmonic oscillators unlike Classical harmonic oscillators are found in some specific numeric energy values. For eg lets say Energy system is varying like n=0,1,2,3,…. so we wont find it in 1.5 or 0.5 but in Classical harmonic oscillators we will find it every where from zero to infinity.

Quantum harmonic oscillators are useful in asking some very important questions such as what is energy level of Electron or any other particle, what is difference of energy gap, can it make transition from one energy level to other.


Ladder operators

Ladder operators are a key concept in quantum mechanics that allow us to understand the behavior of energy in quantum systems. These operators are used to calculate the energy levels of electrons in atoms and describe the behavior of particles in a variety of contexts. Without these operators, we would need to solve the Schrodinger equation to get energy values and energy differences for each particle, making our work more difficult. In the following sections, we'll explore how ladder operators work and how they help us understand the fundamental nature of energy in quantum mechanics. Ladder operators are of two types : creation operator and annihilation operator.


Creation and annihilation operator

The creation operator is a type of ladder operator that is used to raise the energy level of a quantum system. When the creation operator is applied to a state, it adds a quantum of energy to the system and increases the energy level by one. The creation operator is often denoted by the symbol a†.


The creation operator is closely related to the annihilation operator, which is the other type of ladder operator. The annihilation operator is used to lower the energy level of a quantum system. When the annihilation operator is applied to a state, it removes a quantum of energy from the system and decreases the energy level by one. The annihilation operator is often denoted by the symbol a.


Together, the creation and annihilation operators form a complete set of operators that can be used to describe the energy levels of a quantum system. This is because these operators can be used to generate all possible energy levels of the system by repeatedly applying them to the ground state of the system.


The creation operator is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics and is used in many different areas of physics, including quantum field theory, solid state physics, and quantum optics.


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